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YUMURTA KABUĞU İÇERİĞİNİN ODUN PLASTİK KOMPOZİT MALZEMENİN YANMA DAYANIMI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 1, 98 - 107, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.17780/ksujes.1178853

Abstract

Bu çalışmada odun plastik kompozit malzeme (OPK) üretiminde kullanılan yumurta kabuğu içeriğinin yanma mukavemeti üzerine etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. OPK malzeme üretimi için yumurta kabuğu, kızılçam odununu, polipropilen (PP) ve maleik anhidrit ile muamele edilmiş polipropilen (MAPP) belirli oranlarda karıştırılmıştır. Tek vidalı ekstrüder kullanılarak peletler elde edilmiştir. Daha sonra peletlerden enjeksiyon kalıplama makinesi kullanılarak test numuneleri üretildi. Üretilen test numunelerinin yanma dayanımı özellikleri belirlenmiş ve testler ilgili standartlara bağlı kalınarak yapılmıştır. OPK levhaların yanma dayanımı belirlenmesi için yanma testi (UL94), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analizi yapılmış ve homojenlik durumunun belirlenmesi için Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) ile görüntüler elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen test sonucu verilerine göre yumurta kabuğu içeriğinin kullanımının artmasına bağlı olarak test numunelerinin yanma esnasında bozunmadan kaynaklı ağırlık kayıplarında azalma olmuştur. Fakat kül miktarı artmıştır. Ayrıca test numunelerinin tutuşma sürelerinde olumlu bir gelişme olduğu, yanma süresinin de arttığı tespit edilmiştir.

References

  • Akpınar B. A., Kuru, D. & Sert, S. (2019). Atık Yumurta Kabuğu Katkısının Polyester Kompozit Malzeme Üretimine Etkisi, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, Cilt 6, 135 – 145. https://doi.org/10.35193/bseufbd.582065.
  • Atagür, M., Sarikanat, M., Uysalman, T., Polat, O., Elbeyli, İ. Y., Seki, Y., & Sever, K. (2018). Mechanical, thermal, and viscoelastic investigations on expanded perlite–filled high-density polyethylene composite, Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, 50(8), 747–761. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095244318765045
  • Alam, S., Habib, F., Irfan, M., Iqbal, W., & Khalid, K. (2010). Effect of orientation of glass fiber on mechanical properties of GRP composites, Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 32: 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/00952443187650
  • Baral, D., De, P., & Nando, G. B. (1999). Thermal characterization of mica-filled thermoplastic polyurethane composites, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 65(1), 47–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(98)00215-8
  • Bongiorno L., “Green, Greener, Greenest”, A Perigee Book, 2008.
  • Borazan, A. A., Duygu, K. U. R. U., & Süleyman, S. E. R. T. (2019). Atık Yumurta Kabuğu Katkısının Polyester Kompozit Malzeme Üretimine Etkisi, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 6, 135-145. https://doi.org/10.35193/bseufbd.582065
  • Demjén, Z., Pukánszky, B., & Nagy, J. (1998). Evaluation of interfacial interaction in polypropylene/surface treated CaCO3 composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 29(3), 323–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(97)00032-8
  • Erden, S., Sever, K., Seki, Y., and Sarikanat M. (2010). Enhancement of the mechanical properties of glass/polyester composites via matrix modification glass/polyester composite siloxane matrix modification. Fibers and Polymers 11: 732–737. DOI 10.1007/s12221-010-0732-2
  • Gan, D., Cao, W., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001a). Mechanical properties and morphologies of poly (ether ketone ketone)/glass fibers/mica ternary composites. Materials Letters, 51(2), 120–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(01)00276-2
  • Gan, D., Lu, S., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001b). Mechanical properties and frictional behavior of a mica-filled poly (aryl ether ketone) composite. European Polymer Journal, 37(7), 1359–1365. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00010-6
  • Gan, D., Lu, S., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001c). Physical properties of poly (ether ketone ketone)/mica composites: effect of filler content. Materials Letters, 48(5), 299–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(00)00318-9
  • Gwon, J. G., Lee, S. Y., Chun, S.J., Doh, G.H., & Kim J.H., (2010). Effects of chemical treatments of hybrid fillers on the physical and thermal properties of wood plastic composites. Composites A (2010), 1491-1497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.06.011
  • Hetzer, M., & Kee, D., (2008) Wood/polymer/nanoclay composites, environmentally friendly sustainable technology: a review. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 16:1016–1027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2008.05.003
  • Huang, R., Kim, B.-J., Lee, S., Zhang, Y., & Wu, Q. (2013). Co-extruded wood-plastic composites with talc-filled shells: morphology, mechanical, and thermal expansion performance. BioResources, 8(2).
  • Karrad, S., Lopez Cuesta, J., & Crespy, A. (1998). Influence of a fine talc on the properties of composites with high density polyethylene and polyethylene/polystyrene blends. Journal of Materials Science 33, 453–461.
  • Kaya, M., & Oz, D., (1999). Mineral Esaslı Alev Geciktirici ve Duman Bastına Katkı Maddeleri, 3. Endiistriyel Hammaddeler Sempozyumu, 14-15 Ekim 1999, Izmir, Türkiye.
  • Kurt, R., & Mengeloğlu, F. (2011). Utilization of boron compounds as synergists with ammonium polyphosphate for flame retardant wood-polymer composites. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35(2), 155-163. DOI 10.3906/tar-0910-508
  • Li, Z., Shen, S. Y., Peng, J. R., & Yang, C. R. (2003). Mechanochemical Modification of Wollastonite and its Application to Polypropylene. Key Engineering Materials, 249, 409–412. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.249.409
  • Lopez, F.A., Martin, M. I., Alguacil, F.J., Alguacil, J. M., & Rincón, T. A. (2012). Centeno, and M. Romero, Thermolysis of fiber glass polyester composite and reutilization of the glass fiber residue to obtain a glass-ceramic material. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 93: 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2011.10.003
  • Mathew M.T., Padaki N. V., Rocha, L.A., Gomes, J. R., Alagirusamy, R., Deopura, B. L., & Fangueiro, R. (2007). Tribological properties of the directionally oriented warp knit GFRP composites. Wear, 263: 930–938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.12.001 Meng, M.R., & Dou, Q. (2008). Effect of pimelic acid on the crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene/wollastonite composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 492(1-2), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2008.03.048
  • Morent, R., De Geyter, N., Leys, C., Gengembreb L. & Payen, E. (2008). Comparison between XPS- and FTIR-analysis of plasma-treated polypropylene film surfaces, Surface and Interface Analysis, 40, 597-600. https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.2619
  • Nielsen, L.E., & Landel, R. F. (1994). Mechanical properties of polymers and composites. New York:Marcel Dekker Textile Research Journal, 64(11), pp.696–696.
  • Özdemir, F. (2020). Perlit İçeriğinin Odun Plastik Kompozitlerin Yanma Dayanımına Etkisi. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(3), 852-860. https://doi.org/10.24011/barofd.754531
  • Özdemir, F. (2021). Perlit Kullanımı ile Odun Plastik Kompozitlerin Fiziksel, Mekanik ve Yüzey Özelliklerindeki Değişimlerin Belirlenmesi, KSÜ Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 24(1), 15-23.
  • Özdemir, F., & Özğan, A. O. (2021). Odun plastik kompozit malzemede yumurta kabuğu kullanımının yanma dayanımına etkileri, Cukurova 7th International Scientific Researches Conference 7-8 September 2021 / Adana, Turkey.
  • Özğan, A. O. (2019). Yumurta Kabuğunun Odun Plastik Kompozit Malzemede Kullanımının Araştırılması” Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Fen bilimleri Enstitüsü, Malzeme Bilimi ve Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalında Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Pastorini M.T., & Nunes R.C.R. (1999). Mica as a filler for ABS/polycarbonate blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 74: 1361–1365. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19991107)74:6<1361::AID-APP6>3.0.CO;2-U
  • Pinto, U. A., & Visconte, L. L. Y., & Reis Nunes, R. C. (2001). Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers with mica and aluminum trihydrate. European Polymer Journal, 37(9), 1935–1937. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00069-6 Švab, I., Musil, V., Šmit, I., & Makarovič, M. (2007). Mechanical properties of wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene composites modified with SEBS and SEBS-g-MA elastomers. Polymer Engineering & Science, 47(11), 1873–1880. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.20897
  • Thio, Y. S., Argon, A. S., Cohen, R. E., & Weinberg, M. (2002). Toughening of isotactic polypropylene with CaCO3 particles. Polymer, 43(13), 3661–3674. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00193-3
  • Tomak, E. D., Ustaomer, D., Ermeydan, M.A., & Yıldız, S. (2018). An investigation of surface properties of thermally modified wood during natural weathering for 48 months, Measurement, 127,187-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.05.102
  • UL 94, 2006. Test for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances.
  • (URL-1) Yumurta kabuğundan kâğıt üretimi (2019). https://www.milliyet.com.tr/ekonomi/yumurta-kabugundan-kagit-uretildi-2366104, erişim.26.10.2022
  • Zhou, Y. Li, Y., Zhong, H., Hou, J., Ding, Y. & Yang, C. (2006). Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells based on tetrapod-shaped CdSexTe1−x nanocrystals, Nanotechnology, 17 pp. 4041-4047. DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/17/16/008

EFFECT OF EGG SHELLS CONTENTS ON COMBUSTION RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Year 2023, Volume: 26 Issue: 1, 98 - 107, 15.03.2023
https://doi.org/10.17780/ksujes.1178853

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of egg shell content used in the production of wood plastic composite material (OPK) on the combustion strength. In the production of OPK material, red pine wood flour, polypropylene (PP), egg shell and polypropylene (MAPP) treated with maleic anhydride are mixed in certain proportions. Pellets were obtained using a single screw extruder. Then, test samples were produced from the pellets using an injection molding machine. The fire resistance properties of the produced test samples were determined and the tests were carried out in accordance with the relevant standards. Combustion test (UL94), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were performed to determine the fire resistance of OPK sheets, and images were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the homogeneity status. According to the test result data obtained, there was a decrease in the weight losses of the test samples due to decomposition during combustion, due to the increase in the use of eggshell content. But the amount of ash increased. In addition, it was determined that there was a positive development in the ignition times of the test samples and the burning time increased.

References

  • Akpınar B. A., Kuru, D. & Sert, S. (2019). Atık Yumurta Kabuğu Katkısının Polyester Kompozit Malzeme Üretimine Etkisi, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, Cilt 6, 135 – 145. https://doi.org/10.35193/bseufbd.582065.
  • Atagür, M., Sarikanat, M., Uysalman, T., Polat, O., Elbeyli, İ. Y., Seki, Y., & Sever, K. (2018). Mechanical, thermal, and viscoelastic investigations on expanded perlite–filled high-density polyethylene composite, Journal of Elastomers & Plastics, 50(8), 747–761. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095244318765045
  • Alam, S., Habib, F., Irfan, M., Iqbal, W., & Khalid, K. (2010). Effect of orientation of glass fiber on mechanical properties of GRP composites, Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 32: 265–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/00952443187650
  • Baral, D., De, P., & Nando, G. B. (1999). Thermal characterization of mica-filled thermoplastic polyurethane composites, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 65(1), 47–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(98)00215-8
  • Bongiorno L., “Green, Greener, Greenest”, A Perigee Book, 2008.
  • Borazan, A. A., Duygu, K. U. R. U., & Süleyman, S. E. R. T. (2019). Atık Yumurta Kabuğu Katkısının Polyester Kompozit Malzeme Üretimine Etkisi, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 6, 135-145. https://doi.org/10.35193/bseufbd.582065
  • Demjén, Z., Pukánszky, B., & Nagy, J. (1998). Evaluation of interfacial interaction in polypropylene/surface treated CaCO3 composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 29(3), 323–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(97)00032-8
  • Erden, S., Sever, K., Seki, Y., and Sarikanat M. (2010). Enhancement of the mechanical properties of glass/polyester composites via matrix modification glass/polyester composite siloxane matrix modification. Fibers and Polymers 11: 732–737. DOI 10.1007/s12221-010-0732-2
  • Gan, D., Cao, W., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001a). Mechanical properties and morphologies of poly (ether ketone ketone)/glass fibers/mica ternary composites. Materials Letters, 51(2), 120–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(01)00276-2
  • Gan, D., Lu, S., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001b). Mechanical properties and frictional behavior of a mica-filled poly (aryl ether ketone) composite. European Polymer Journal, 37(7), 1359–1365. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00010-6
  • Gan, D., Lu, S., Song, C., & Wang, Z. (2001c). Physical properties of poly (ether ketone ketone)/mica composites: effect of filler content. Materials Letters, 48(5), 299–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(00)00318-9
  • Gwon, J. G., Lee, S. Y., Chun, S.J., Doh, G.H., & Kim J.H., (2010). Effects of chemical treatments of hybrid fillers on the physical and thermal properties of wood plastic composites. Composites A (2010), 1491-1497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.06.011
  • Hetzer, M., & Kee, D., (2008) Wood/polymer/nanoclay composites, environmentally friendly sustainable technology: a review. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 16:1016–1027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2008.05.003
  • Huang, R., Kim, B.-J., Lee, S., Zhang, Y., & Wu, Q. (2013). Co-extruded wood-plastic composites with talc-filled shells: morphology, mechanical, and thermal expansion performance. BioResources, 8(2).
  • Karrad, S., Lopez Cuesta, J., & Crespy, A. (1998). Influence of a fine talc on the properties of composites with high density polyethylene and polyethylene/polystyrene blends. Journal of Materials Science 33, 453–461.
  • Kaya, M., & Oz, D., (1999). Mineral Esaslı Alev Geciktirici ve Duman Bastına Katkı Maddeleri, 3. Endiistriyel Hammaddeler Sempozyumu, 14-15 Ekim 1999, Izmir, Türkiye.
  • Kurt, R., & Mengeloğlu, F. (2011). Utilization of boron compounds as synergists with ammonium polyphosphate for flame retardant wood-polymer composites. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35(2), 155-163. DOI 10.3906/tar-0910-508
  • Li, Z., Shen, S. Y., Peng, J. R., & Yang, C. R. (2003). Mechanochemical Modification of Wollastonite and its Application to Polypropylene. Key Engineering Materials, 249, 409–412. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.249.409
  • Lopez, F.A., Martin, M. I., Alguacil, F.J., Alguacil, J. M., & Rincón, T. A. (2012). Centeno, and M. Romero, Thermolysis of fiber glass polyester composite and reutilization of the glass fiber residue to obtain a glass-ceramic material. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 93: 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2011.10.003
  • Mathew M.T., Padaki N. V., Rocha, L.A., Gomes, J. R., Alagirusamy, R., Deopura, B. L., & Fangueiro, R. (2007). Tribological properties of the directionally oriented warp knit GFRP composites. Wear, 263: 930–938. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2006.12.001 Meng, M.R., & Dou, Q. (2008). Effect of pimelic acid on the crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of polypropylene/wollastonite composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 492(1-2), 177–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2008.03.048
  • Morent, R., De Geyter, N., Leys, C., Gengembreb L. & Payen, E. (2008). Comparison between XPS- and FTIR-analysis of plasma-treated polypropylene film surfaces, Surface and Interface Analysis, 40, 597-600. https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.2619
  • Nielsen, L.E., & Landel, R. F. (1994). Mechanical properties of polymers and composites. New York:Marcel Dekker Textile Research Journal, 64(11), pp.696–696.
  • Özdemir, F. (2020). Perlit İçeriğinin Odun Plastik Kompozitlerin Yanma Dayanımına Etkisi. Bartın Orman Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(3), 852-860. https://doi.org/10.24011/barofd.754531
  • Özdemir, F. (2021). Perlit Kullanımı ile Odun Plastik Kompozitlerin Fiziksel, Mekanik ve Yüzey Özelliklerindeki Değişimlerin Belirlenmesi, KSÜ Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 24(1), 15-23.
  • Özdemir, F., & Özğan, A. O. (2021). Odun plastik kompozit malzemede yumurta kabuğu kullanımının yanma dayanımına etkileri, Cukurova 7th International Scientific Researches Conference 7-8 September 2021 / Adana, Turkey.
  • Özğan, A. O. (2019). Yumurta Kabuğunun Odun Plastik Kompozit Malzemede Kullanımının Araştırılması” Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Fen bilimleri Enstitüsü, Malzeme Bilimi ve Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalında Yüksek Lisans Tezi.
  • Pastorini M.T., & Nunes R.C.R. (1999). Mica as a filler for ABS/polycarbonate blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 74: 1361–1365. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19991107)74:6<1361::AID-APP6>3.0.CO;2-U
  • Pinto, U. A., & Visconte, L. L. Y., & Reis Nunes, R. C. (2001). Mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers with mica and aluminum trihydrate. European Polymer Journal, 37(9), 1935–1937. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00069-6 Švab, I., Musil, V., Šmit, I., & Makarovič, M. (2007). Mechanical properties of wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene composites modified with SEBS and SEBS-g-MA elastomers. Polymer Engineering & Science, 47(11), 1873–1880. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.20897
  • Thio, Y. S., Argon, A. S., Cohen, R. E., & Weinberg, M. (2002). Toughening of isotactic polypropylene with CaCO3 particles. Polymer, 43(13), 3661–3674. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00193-3
  • Tomak, E. D., Ustaomer, D., Ermeydan, M.A., & Yıldız, S. (2018). An investigation of surface properties of thermally modified wood during natural weathering for 48 months, Measurement, 127,187-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.05.102
  • UL 94, 2006. Test for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances.
  • (URL-1) Yumurta kabuğundan kâğıt üretimi (2019). https://www.milliyet.com.tr/ekonomi/yumurta-kabugundan-kagit-uretildi-2366104, erişim.26.10.2022
  • Zhou, Y. Li, Y., Zhong, H., Hou, J., Ding, Y. & Yang, C. (2006). Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells based on tetrapod-shaped CdSexTe1−x nanocrystals, Nanotechnology, 17 pp. 4041-4047. DOI 10.1088/0957-4484/17/16/008

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Forest Industry Engineering
Journal Section Forest Engineering
Authors

Ferhat ÖZDEMİR
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ORMAN FAKÜLTESİ, ORMAN ENDÜSTRİSİ MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-2282-1884
Türkiye


Ali Osman ÖZĞAN
IĞDIR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9646-1984
Türkiye

Supporting Institution KSU BAP BİRİMİ
Project Number 2018/1-7 YLS
Thanks 2018/1-7 YLS nolu proje ile çalışmayı desteklediği için KSU-BAP birimine teşekkür ederiz
Publication Date March 15, 2023
Submission Date September 22, 2022
Acceptance Date November 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 26 Issue: 1

Cite

APA Özdemir, F. & Özğan, A. O. (2023). YUMURTA KABUĞU İÇERİĞİNİN ODUN PLASTİK KOMPOZİT MALZEMENİN YANMA DAYANIMI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ . Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi , 26 (1) , 98-107 . DOI: 10.17780/ksujes.1178853